COVID-19 has had a highly complex and nuanced effect on supply chains, industry and economies which has been impossible to predict, not least due to its impact at different times on different stages of supply chains. Bottlenecks have appeared throughout the world as ﬁrst supply was disrupted in Asia and then demand in Europe and North America. The individual micro-dynamics of air, road and sea freight markets, as well as external governmental factors such as regulations and border controls, have also led to a mismatch in supply and demand. The crisis and its impact on supply chain and logistics can be summarised in three phases.
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